Author Archives: Rina Wehbe

About Rina Wehbe

Master's Student at UOIT's HCI and Game Science Group.

Review of “Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology”


Nacke, L. E., Stellmach, S., & Lindley, C. A. (2010). Electroencephalographic Assessment of Player Experience: A Pilot Study in Affective Ludology. Simulation & Gaming, 42(5), 632–655. doi:10.1177/1046878110378140


The presented paper has two goals. It seeks to both establish a methodology for the use of Electroencephalography (EEG) for game research and to examine the results of a pilot study following this methodology established. The paper begins with an in-depth review of the literature regarding the fundamentals of user experience including immersion, flow, boredom. The paper also features a pilot study. The presented paper looks at player experience using EEG and questionnaires. The authors vary the game design of the level to incite either boredom, immersion or flow. The paper looks at heuristics or Level Design Guidelines used to outline game design. The paper concludes the heuristics successful via the questionnaires. The EEG results were not entirely complementary. The EEG results indicated that the immersion- level design is associated with increased theta band activity. In the discussion the paper suggests that increased theta band activity caused by immersion could be linked to the exploration and navigation of virtual areas.

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Review of “NeuroWander: a BCI Game in the Form of an Interactive Fairy Tale”


Yoh, M., Kwon, J., & Kim, S. (2010). NeuroWander: a BCI Game in the Form of Interactive Fairy Tale. UbiComp’10.


The article presents a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) game developed for use with one of Neurosky’s electroencephalograph (EEG) headsets. The concept behind the game and some of the game features are very briefly outlined.


books and headset

The Neurosky’s Mindset is shown. The Mindset was used for the BCI game presented in the article.

The title reads well but the references don’t. Although the title of the paper is interesting, I could not help but notice that a published article references Wikipedia, the Neurosky website in ¾ of the presented references.

The game discussed seems entertaining Continue reading

Review of “Turning shortcomings into challenge: Brain-computer interfaces for games”

Person wearing mindset

Nijholt, A., Bos, D. P.-O., & Reuderink, B. (2009). Turning shortcomings into challenges: Brain–computer interfaces for games. Entertainment Computing, 1(2), 85–94. doi:10.1016/j.entcom.2009.09.007


In the presented article, the authors’ main argument is: Brain- Computer Interfaces (BCI) applications are well suited for gamers as opposed to traditional medical applications because game interfaces are made to be challenging, and shortcomings of BCI can act as additional challenges for the player.

The paper beings with a short summary of BCI, its current use in the medical field, and the movement of BCI towards Continue reading

A review of “A review of the use of Psychophysiological methods in game research”

Skin conductance methodology shown

Kivikangas, J., Chanel, G., Cowley, B., Ekman, I., Salminen, M., Jarvela, S., & Ravaja, N. (2011). A review of the use of psychophysiological methods in game research. Journal of Gaming &Virtual Worlds, 3(3), 181–199. doi:10.1386/jgvw.3.3.181


Games research revolves around the improvement of games by focusing either on evaluation or the use of novel techniques and strategies to diversify games. Information that may traditionally be collected using other techniques such as questionnaires or user testing often detracts from the quality of the gameplay, biasing the results. Researchers have implemented psychophysiological techniques to collect information about the participants’ inner state. Alternatively, psychophysiology can also be used as a type of input for applications, because it is novel, dynamic and can provide real-time feedback without increasing the cognitive load of the user.

Psychophysiological methodology involves the use of measures, analysis techniques and study designs. In the case of games, user research is often used to gain information about the user during gameplay.  Equipment and measures used may include, but are not limited to: skin conductance, eye tracking, heart rate, pulse, and electroencephalograph (EEG).

In order to collect accurate information and reduce bias, psychophysiological studies should include a large participant sample. Information on Continue reading

TESTING 1, 2, 3…

Hello Everyone,

Rina My name is Rina Wehbe. I completed my B.Sc. Hnrs. Psychology at York University. My undergraduate thesis was in Cortical Connectivity and Autism. I am currently a Master’s student at University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT). I am part of the HCI and Game Science Lab (affectionately known as the GAMERLab) under the supervision of Professor Lennart Nacke. For more information about the Lab and its members check out: HCI People; . My current research interests focus around Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI), Psychology, User Experience, Video games and Electroencephalography (EEG). In my free time I am a Triforce Warrior, who enjoys reading and playing with my two (adorable-not-so-bright) cats.
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